*SKINPEP® ANALYSIS SURVEY - Collagen Re-Nu "Marine Mix" 30 Day Trial, 2019

We Conducted The SkinPep Marine Mix Collagen Re-Nu Granules 30-Day User Trial.

Each Participant (Age 39 - 57) Consumed A 10g Serving Of Our Instant Mixing Granules
Per Day & Had A UV Skin Analysis Scan To Determine The Following


!00% of the participants saw a reduction in their
results here

90% reported that their skin feels replenished and restored after 4 weeks (Source, Marine Mix Collagen Re-Nu Trial, 2019)

91% reported that their skin feels soft and smoother after
4 weeks
(Source, Marine Mix Collagen Re-Nu Trial, 2019)

81% reported that their skin feels bright and luminous
after 4 weeks
(Source, Marine Mix Collagen Re-Nu Trial, 2019)

94% reported that their hair feels smoother after 4
(Source, Marine Mix Collagen Re-Nu Trial, 2019)

Marine mix challenge page:


SkinPep® users were asked about their experiences using our peptide serums, 90% said they noticed an improvement in the appearance of skin within 3 weeks. 87% agreed they noticed the appearance of a new skin glow. This may conclude the use of SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear and Eye Lift Serum results in the formation of new glowing skin within a few weeks.

SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot - Scientific Fact sheet

What Form of Collagen Is Contained In SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot?

Collagen Re-Nu® is produced from the fibrous protein extracted from the skin and scales of white fish found in the western Pacific Ocean. e.g. rainbow trout, tilapia, paddlefish & salmon. The type of collagen of Marine collagen is called Type 1 and 3 collagen.

How Is the Hydrolyzed Collagen Contained In SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot Produced?

Collagen Re-Nu® contains Double Hydrolyzed marine collagen type 1 & type 1 3, a pre-digested form of collagen known to have superior absorption and numerous clinically proven benefits on the human body. It is also called collagen hydrolysate, collagen peptide. The process of hydrolysis involves breaking down the molecular bonds between individual collagen strands using combinations of heat, acids, alkalis, or enzymes.*

What Are The Clinically Proven Effects (Properties) Of Consuming SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot Every Day For More Than 21 Days.

OPTIMISED SKIN HEALTH - Marine collagen contains 17 types of essential and non-essential amino acids in a balanced ratio. It is rich in glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline which are the main components in human skin. A preclinical study investigated the effects of oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen, along with vitamin C, (in concentrations contained in SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® suggested that the moisture content of the skin, its viscoelastic properties, and smoothness benefit.[7]

The mechanism of action of ingested SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® hydrolyzed marine collagen on the skin may be the increased density of collagen fibrils and the fibroblasts density (the fibroblasts being the main cells of the dermis, and those producing collagen).[8] It may be that the peptides of ingested hydrolyzed collagen have chemotactic properties on fibroblasts[9] or an influence on the growth of fibroblasts.[10] The Glycine and proline amino acid concentration of SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® is as much as 20 times higher than other food sources of protein. [2]

Our qualified biochemists suggest that daily supplementation of the ratio of key collagen-forming amino acids, that are found in SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® will cause the body to better respond to cell-communicating ingredients like those found in high end Cosmeceuticals e.g. the SkinPep® anti ageing range and aesthetic skincare treatments e.g., micro needle rollers, radio frequency and other electronic skin and collagen stimulating therapies.

OPTIMISED MUSCLE FUNCTION - SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot contains 8 out of 9 essential amino-acids,[3] including glycine and arginine[4]—two amino-acid precursors necessary for the biosynthesis of Creatine. Daily consumption of Collagen ReNu® liquid shot can result in an improvement in muscle strength and explosive energy.

SUPERIOR DIGESTIBILITY -The bioavailability of hydrolyzed collagen was demonstrated in a 1999 study; mice orally administered 14 hydrolyzed collagen digested and absorbed more than 90% within 6 hours, with measurable accumulation in cartilage and skin.[5] A 2005 study found hydrolyzed collagen absorbed
as small peptides in the blood.[6]

The hydrolysis process results in reducing the large collagen proteins into smaller peptides which are easily absorbed. Low molecular weight Type I fish collagen peptide is the best collagen for skin rejuvenation. There are more than 20 types of collagen in the body, but Type I collagen comprises about 90% of the collagen found in the body overall. Raising Type I collagen levels in your body by taking SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot provides noticeable anti-aging benefits.
Typically derived from salmon and red snapper, SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot (fish collagen) is up to 1.5 times more absorbent than bovine or porcine collagen because of its low molecular

JOINT & BONE HEALTH - Joint & Bone Health Some clinical studies report that the oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen decreases joint pain, those with the most severe symptoms showing the most benefit.[11][12] Beneficial action is likely due to hydrolyzed collagen accumulation in the cartilage[5] and stimulated production of collagen by the chondrocytes, the cells of cartilage.[13] Several studies have shown that a daily intake of hydrolyzed collagen increases bone mass density.[14][4] It seems that hydrolyzed collagen peptides stimulated differentiation and osteoblasts activity- the cells that build bone- over that of osteoclasts (cells that destroy bone).

OTHER EFFICACY ASSERTIONS -It has been claimed that hydrolyzed collagen (e.g. SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Liquid Shot) may promote lean muscle mass through and the burning of fat rather than carbohydrates and proteins,
toning and thickening skin, joint rebuilding, arterial strengthening, increased energy, organ rebuilding, alleviate osteoporosis, as well as lessening the symptoms of arthritis, high blood pressure, bladder weakness, chronic fatigue, shallow breathing, autoimmune, skin problems, and splitting nails.[25]

SkinPep Collagen Re-Nu® Amino acid content: The amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen. Hydrolyzed collagen contains
20 amino acids, predominantly glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, which together represent around 50% of the total amino acid content:

Amino acids Percentage
Proline/Hydroxyproline 25%
Glycine 20%
Glutamic acid 11%
Arginine 8%
Alanine 8%
Other essential amino acids 16%
Other non-essential amino acids 12%


1. http://www.naturalpigments.com/detail.asp?PRODUCT_ID=510-21GRSG5

2. "What is Hydrolyzed Collagen?". Rousselot. Retrieved 31 July 2009.

3. Bensaid, A.; Tomé, D., L’Heureux-Bourdon, D., Even, P., Gietzen, D., Morens, C., Gaudichon, C., Larue-Achagiotis, C.
and Fromentin, G. (2003). "A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the
rat". Physiology and behavior 78 (2): 311–320. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00977-0. PMID 12576130.

4. Fricke, O.; Baecker, N., Heer, M., Tutlewski, B. and Schoenau, E. (2008). "The effect of L-arginine administration on
muscle force and power in postmenopausal women". Clinical physiology and functional imaging 28 (5): 307–
311. doi:10.1111/j.1475-097X.2008.00809.x. PMID 18510549.

5. Oesser, S.; Adam, M., Babel, W. and Seifert, J. (1999). "Oral administration of 14C labelled gelatine hydrolysate leads
to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice (C57/BL)". Journal of nutrition 129 (10): 1891–
1895. PMID 10498764.

6. Iwai, K.; Hasegawa, T., Taguchi, Y., Morimatsu, F., Sato, K., Nakamura, Y., Higashi, A., Kido, Y., Nakabo, Y. and
Ohtsuki, K. (2005). "Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatine
hydrolysates". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (16): 6531–
6536. doi:10.1021/jf050206p.PMID 16076145.

7. Matsumoto, H.; Ohara, H., Ito, K., Nakamura, Y. and Takahashi, S. (2006). "Clinical effects of fish type I collagen
hydrolysate on skin properties". ITE Letters 7 (4): 386–390.

8. Matsuda, N.; Koyama, Y., Hosaka, Y., Ueda, H., Watanabe, T., Araya, T., Irie, S. and Takehana K. (2006). "Effects of
ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis". Journal of nutrition
vitaminology 52 (3): 211–215. doi:10.3177/jnsv.52.211.

9. Postlethwaite, A.E.; Seyer, J.M. and Kang, A.H. (1978). "Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75 (2): 871–
875. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.2.871. PMC 411359. PMID 204938.

10. Shigemura, Y.; K Iwai, F Morimatsu, T Iwamoto, T Mori, C Oda, T Taira, EY Park, Y Nakamura and K Sato (2009).
"Effect of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a food-derived collagen peptide in human blood, on growth of fibroblasts from mouse skin". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2): 444–
449. doi:10.1021/jf802785h.PMID 19128041.

11. Moskowitz, R. (2000). "Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease". Seminars in arthritis and
rheumatism 30 (2): 87–99. doi:10.1053/sarh.2000.9622.PMID 11071580.

12. Ruiz-Benito, P.; Camacho-Zambrano, M.M., Carrillo-Arcentales, J.N., Mestanza-Peralta, M.A., Vallejo-Flores, C.A., Vargas-Lopez, S.V., Villacis-Tamayo, R.A. and Zurita-Gavilanes, L.A. (2009). "A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of a food ingredient, collagen hydrolysate, for improving joint comfort". International journal of food science and nutrition

12: 1–15. doi:10.1080/09637480802498820.

13. Oesser, S.; Seifert, J. (2003). "Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen". Cell tissue research 311(3): 393–399. doi:10.1007/s00441-003-0702-
8. PMID 12658447.

14. Nomura, Y.; Oohashi, K.; Watanabe, M. and Kasugai (2005). "Increase in bone mineral density through oral
administration of shark gelatine to ovariectomized rats". S Nutrition 21 (11-12): 1120– 1126. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2005.03.007. PMID 16308135.

15. European Food Safety Authority - EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA Journal 2011;9(7):2291.

16. Barnett ML, Kremer JM, St Clair EW, Clegg DO, Furst D, Weisman M, Fletcher MJ, Chasan-Taber S, Finger E, Morales A, Le CH, Trentham DE: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1998 Feb;41(2):290-7. 17. Ausar SF, Beltramo DM, Castagna LF, Quintana S, Silvera E, Kalayan G, Revigliono M, Landa CA, Bianco ID: Treatment
of rheumatoid arthritis by oral administration of bovine tracheal type II collagen. Rheumatol Int. 2001

18. Trentham DE, Dynesius-Trentham RA, Orav EJ, Combitchi D, Lorenzo C, Sewell KL, Hafler DA, Weiner HL: Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science 1993 Sep 24;261(5129):1727-30.

19. Bagchi D, Misner B, Bagchi M, Kothari SC, Downs BW, Fafard RD, Preuss HG: Effects of orally administered
undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory disease: a mechanistic exploration. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2002;22(3-4):101-10.

20. Sieper J, Kary S, Sorensen H, Alten R, Eggens U, Huge W, Hiepe F, Kuhne A, Listing J, Ulbrich N, Braun J, Zink A,
Mitchison NA: Oral type II collagen treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled,
randomized trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jan;39(1):41-51.

21. McKown KM, Carbone LD, Kaplan SB, Aelion JA, Lohr KM, Cremer MA, Bustillo J, Gonzalez M, Kaeley G, Steere EL, Somes GW, Myers LK, Seyer JM, Kang AH, Postlethwaite AE: Lack of efficacy of oral bovine type II collagen added to existing therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;42(6):1304-8

22. Cazzola M, Antivalle M, Sarzi-Puttini P, Dell’Acqua D, Panni B, Caruso I: Oral type II collagen in the treatment of
rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000 Sep-Oct;

23. Helps to reduce joint pain associated with osteoarthritis (Bruyère et al. 2012; Benito-Ruiz et al. 2009; Clark et al.

24. http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=hydrolized.collagen&lang=eng

25. "What Is Hydrolyzed Collagen?". Livestrong.com Blog. Retrieved 8 June 2011.


is a source of Haluronic acid. Its name is derived from the
Greek word hualos, meaning glass because of its transparent, glassy appearance. Haluronic Acid is moisture retaining ingredient and humectants. Haluronic acid is a natural skin cell component, found in the deepest levels of the dermis.It is able to hold 200 times its weight in water, which makes it an excellent moisturiser. It is found more in younger skins with levels declining over the years.
(Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=hyaluronic%20acid%20skin)

FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Hydra Boost, Day & Night Cream, Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, Collagen Glow Face, Eye & Décollatage Mask


is used to support collagen synthesis and protect from free radicals, it is a water-soluble, non-irritating, stable derivative of Vitamin C. It has the same potential as vitamin C to boost skin collagen. It is also important to note that Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate may be better choice than Vitamin C for people with sensitive skin and those wishing to avoid any exfoliating effects since many Vitamin C formulas are highly acidic (and therefore produce exfoliating effects).In skin care products,Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) is also used for UV protection and repair, collagen production, skin lightening and brightening, and as an anti-inflammatory. It is also a potent antioxidant. It is considered an excellent non-irritating skin whitening agent that inhibits skin cells to produce melanin and lightens age spots and is a great alternative to Quinone. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate is also a potent anti-oxidant that can protect skin from oxidation and UV rays and is used as an anti-inflammatory. There are no adverse side effects to using Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP), although those with sensitive skin may need to be aware of Vitamin C's acidic and exfoliating effects. However, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) is generally considered gentler than traditional Vitamin C and therefore safer on sensitive skin. Magnesium Ascorbyl-Phosphate is absorbed quickly by the aqueous environment of our bodies, but because it is fat soluble it also penetrates the bilayer of human cells much more readily. Magnesium Ascorbyl-Phosphate, working at the cell membrane, has been shown to provide antioxidant action potential comparable or even greater than that of vitamin E. It also acts synergistically with vitamin E, helping to regenerate the vitamin E radical on a constant basis.

References: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16154915reload=0;jsessionid=y1X7TaeEEBD

U80flut7m.12"Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention "Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of pro-collagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy

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Additional Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate - Clinical references

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008 Dec;30(6):453-8. Stability of vitamin C
derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A
and E. Segall AI, Moyano MA. Cátedra de Control de Calidad de
Medicamentos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos
Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina. asegall@ffyb.uba.ar
stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and
magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by
direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after
sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture.
Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl
phosphate are derivatives of
ascorbic acid which differ in
hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and
pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters
showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium
ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than
ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.
PMID: 19099546 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19099546

Res Technol. 2008 Aug;14(3):376-80. In vitro antioxidant activity and
in vivo efficacy of topical formulations containing vitamin C and its
derivatives studied by non-invasive methods. Campos PM, Gonçalves GM,
Gaspar LR. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto,
Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. pmcampos@usp.br
Vitamins C and its derivatives, mainly due to their antioxidant
properties, are being used in cosmetic products to protect and to reduce
the signs of ageing. However, there are no studies comparing the
effects of vitamin C ascorbic acid (AA) and its derivatives, magnesium
ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) and ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitate (ATIP), when
vehiculated in topical formulations, mainly using objective
measurements, which are an important tool in clinical efficacy studies.
Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the in vitro
antioxidant activity of AA and its derivatives, MAP and ATIP, as well as
their in vivo efficacy on human skin, when vehiculated in topical
METHODS: The study of antioxidant activity in vitro was
performed with an aqueous and a lipid system. The in vivo methodology
consisted of the application of these formulations on human volunteers'
forearm skin and the analysis of the skin conditions after 4-week period
daily applications in terms of transepidermal water loss (TEWL),
stratum corneum moisture content and viscoelasticity using a Tewameter,
Corneometer and Cutometer, respectively.
RESULTS: In vitro
experiments demonstrated that in an aqueous system, AA had the best
antioxidant potential, and MAP was more effective than ATIP, whereas in
the lipid system ATIP was more effective than MAP. In in vivo studies,
all formulations enhanced stratum corneum moisture content after a
4-week period daily applications when compared with baseline values;
however, only the formulation containing AA caused alterations in TEWL
values. The formulations containing MAP caused alterations in the
viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio, which suggested its action in the deeper
layers of the skin.
CONCLUSION: AA and its derivates presented an in
vitro antioxidant activity but AA had the best antioxidant effect. In in
vivo efficacy studies, only the formulation containing AA caused
alterations in TEWL values and the formulation containing MAP caused
alterations in the viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio. This way, vitamin C
derivatives did not present the same effects of AA on human skin;
however, MAP showed other significant effect-improving skin hydration,
which is very important for the normal cutaneous metabolism and also to
prevent skin alterations and early ageing.
PMID: 19159387 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19159387

Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1301-5. Protective effects of
sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate on the development of UVB-induced damage
in cultured mouse skin. Nayama S, Takehana M, Kanke M, Itoh S, Ogata E,
Kobayashi S. Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo,Japan.
protective effect of sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate (As-2P), a stable
form of ascorbicacid (AsA), against photodamage induced by a single dose
of UVB exposure (290-320 nm, Max 312 nm) was investigated using
cultured mouse skin. When the cultured skin was treated with various
As-2P concentrations, the cutaneous AsA level increased in proportion to
the As-2P concentration. After 3 h of incubation, the AsA level in the
cultured skin treated with 2, 20 and 100 mM As-2P increased 1.03-, 2.17-
and 6.27-fold, respectively, compared with that of the control skin.
These results suggest that As-2P was transported into the cultured mouse
skin where it was converted to AsA. After 3 h, the cutaneous AsA level
inirradiated (20 kJ/m2) skin was depleted to a half of that in the
control skin. However, the level in skin pretreated with 20 mM As-2P was
maintained within normal limits, even after 24 h. Pretreatment with 20
mM As-2P significantly prevented such photodamage as sunburn cell
formation, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation, which were caused
by a single dose of UVB irradiation. These results suggest that the
protective effect of 20 mM As-2P on UVB-induced cutaneous damage is due
to the maintenance of a normal As level by conversion of As-2P to As in
skin tissue.
PMID: 10746160 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10746160

Photobiol. 1998 Jun;67(6):669-75. Postadministration protective effect
of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-phosphate on the development of UVB-induced
cutaneous damage in mice. Kobayashi S, Takehana M, Kanke M, Itoh S,
Ogata E. Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.

The effects of stable vitamin C, magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate
(MAP), administered afteracute and chronic exposure to UVB irradiation
were investigated using hairless mice. Intraperitoneal administration of
100 mg/kg of MAP immediately after acute exposure to 15 kJ/m2 of UVB
significantly prevented increases of UVB-induced lipid peroxidation in
skinand sialic acid in serum, an inflammation marker. Administration of
50 mg/kg of MAP immediately after each exposure significantly delayed
skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronicexposure to 2
kJ/m2 of UVB. Intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg of MAP
produced anincrease in ascorbic acid (As) levels in the serum, liver and
skin within 15 min. Serum As levels quickly returned to normal, but
hepatic and cutaneous levels remained elevated before returning to
normal after 24 h, suggesting that MAP was converted to As in the serum
and in those tissues. Ultraviolet B-induced hydroxyl radical generation
in murine skin homogenates was scavenged by As-Na addition, which was
directly detected by electron spin resonance (ESR). These results
suggest that postadministration of MAP delays progression of skin damage
induced by UVB irradiation. It is presumed that MAP, once converted to
As, exhibits such inhibitory effects by scavenging hydroxyl and lipid
radicals generated as a direct or indirect result of UVB exposure.
PMID: 9648533 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9648533

Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997 Mar;15(6):795-801. Stability of vitamin C
derivatives in solution and topical formulations. Austria R, Semenzato
A, Bettero A. Universit? di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze
Farmaceutiche, Italy.

The stabilityy of ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and magnesium
ascorbyl phosphate (VC-PMG) in both standard solutions and topical
formulations was investigated by direct RP-HPLC analysis after sample
dilution with a suitable aqueous-organic solvent mixture. The results
showed that, whereas the two vitamin C derivatives were more stable than
ascorbic acid, the ascorbyl esters showed significant differences.
Esterification with palmitic acid in 6 position did not prevent
hydrolysis of the molecule, either in solution or in emulsion; only the
special preparation of products with high viscoelastic properties was
able to reduce the typical behaviour of this compound. Conversely, the
introduction of the phosphoric group in 2 position protected the
molecule frombreak-up of the enediol system, confirming VC-PMG as a very
stable derivative of vitamin C that may be easily used in various types
of cosmetic products.
PMID: 9172105 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9172105

Photobiol. 1996 Jul;64(1):224-8. Protective effect of
magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate against skin damage induced by UVB
irradiation. Kobayashi S, Takehana M, Itoh S, Ogata E. Kyoritsu College
of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.

The protective effect of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (MAP) on
cutaneous photodamage such as lipid peroxidation and inflammation
induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure (290-320 nm, max. 312 nm) was
investigated using hairless mice. When MAP was administered
intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AS) per
kg body weight base immediately before irradiation (15 kj/m2), the
expected increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)
formation in skin and serum sialic acid, indices of lipid peroxidation
and inflammatory reaction, respectively, were significantly reduced.
However, the expected decrease in the level of cutaneous AS was
unchanged. Similar results were observed for animals given 100 mg of
AS-Na per kg body weight before UVB irradiation. When MAP was
administered intracutaneously immediately before irradiation, the
expected UVB-induced increases in TBARS and sialic acid were again
significantly prevented. Ascorbic acid-Na had a less protective
effectthan intracutaneous MAP administration. The cutaneous AS level was
significantly higher in the MAP-treated mice than in the controls, and
the UVB-induced decrease in tissue AS wasprevented by intracutaneous MAP
administration. These results suggest that MAP protects against UVB
irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in cutaneous
tissue, regardless of the drug administration route. We found, in an in
vitro experiment, that MAP was converted to AS as it crossed the
epidermis, but that AS-Na did not pass through the epidermis.
Furthermore, MAP was also converted to AS in serum. These results
suggest that the protective effect of MAP on UVB-induced cutaneous
damage is due to conversion of MAP to AS.
PMID: 8787018 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8787018

Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Jan;34(1):29-33. Inhibitory effect of magnesium
L-ascorbyl-2phosphate (VC-PMG) on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Kameyama K, Sakai C, Kondoh S,Yonemoto K, Nishiyama S, Tagawa M, Murata
T, Ohnuma T, Quigley J, Dorsky A, Bucks D, Blanock K. Department of
Dermatology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan.

BACKGROUND: An inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) on
melanogenesis has been described.However, AsA is quickly oxidized and
decomposed in aqueous solution and thus is not generally useful as a
depigmenting agent.
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the effect
on pigmentation of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG), a stable
derivative of AsA.
METHODS: Percutaneous absorption of VC-PMG was
examined in dermatomed human skin, and its effect on melanin production
by mammalian tyrosinase and human melanoma cells in
culture was also measured. A 10% VC-PMG cream was applied to the patients.
VC-PMG suppressed melanin formation by tyrosinase and melanoma cells.
In situ experiments demonstrated that VC-PMG cream was absorbed into the
epidermis and that 1.6% remained 48 hours after application. The
lightening effect was significant in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or
senile freckles and in 3 of 25 patients with normal skin.
CONCLUSION: VC-PMG is effective in reducing skin hyperpigmentation in some patients.
PMID: 8543691 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8543691

Pharmacol. 1993;6(1):65-71. Regulation of collagen synthesis in human
dermal fibroblasts by the sodium and magnesium salts of
ascorbyl-2-phosphate. Geesin JC, Gordon JS, Berg RA. Department of
Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert
Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway 08854.

Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis in
dermal fibroblasts by increasing the rate of transcription of collagen
genes. Experiments involving the use of ascorbic acid require daily
supplementation due to the instability of the molecule in aqueous
solutions. In order to provide a more stable alternative to ascorbic
acid, two salts of ascorbyl-2-phosphate, having a greater chemical
stability than ascorbic acid, were tested for their ability to stimulate
collagen synthesis in monolayer fibroblast cultures. The concentration
and time dependence of their activities were compared with ascorbic
acid. The magnesium salt of ascorbyl-2-phosphate was found to be
equivalent to ascorbic acid in stimulating collagen synthesis in these
assays, while the sodium salt required at least a tenfold greater
concentration to produce the same effect as ascorbic acid. Solutions of
either ascorbic acid or the ascorbyl-2-phosphate analogs (at 10 mM) in
phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were relatively stable as shown by their
decay rates and their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis even
after nine days in solution prior to testing their effects on cultured
cells. Ascorbic acid was unstable at neutral pH compared to solutions of
either sodium or magnesium ascorbyl-2-phosphate. These data support the
use of magnesium ascorbyl-2-phosphate in experiments where stability of
ascorbic acid is a concern, e.g. in long-term cultures or in in vivo
PMID: 8489778 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8489778


Dermatologic Surgery December 1999, page 942

Dermatologic Surgery June 2010, pages 829–840

Journal of Cellular Physiology, August 2009, pages 427–439; Journal of Southern Medical #

University, February 2009, pages 217–219),(ao X, Curhan G, Forman ) JP, et al. Vitamin C intake
and serum uric acid concentration in men. J Rheumatol 2008;35:1853-8.


Professor Chandan Sen, a co-author of the 2002 article "Dermal Wound
Healing Properties of Redox-Active Grape Seed Proanthocy- anidins" in
"Free Radical Biology & Medicine."


FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Hydra Boost, Day & Night Cream, Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, Collagen Glow Face, Eye & Décollatage Mask


Working mainly on the outermost layers of the skin, and has the remarkable ability to repair skin damage and increase the production of new skin cells.

Fibroblasts in the lower layers of the skin instruct cells to produce collagen and elastin to renewthe skin's support structure. ShPolypeptide-1 (amino acid complex) is involved in this natural process to Induce the synthesis of new collagen thus helping to repair wounds* Induces significant fibroblast proliferation. Induces synthesis of new collagen
References: http://www.biobeautycare.com/glycobiology/,

SH-POLYPEPTIDE-5 ~ (TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR TGF)*Clinically proven to optimize collagen and elastin production while inhibiting the enzymes that destroy the collagen-elastin matrix. Repairs skin damage. Calms the cellular inflammation that promotes the aging process. A potent stimulator of collagen production and promotes the synthesis of ground substances like glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan.
(J. Biol. Chem. 262 [14]:6443-46, 1987). Inhibits matrix degradation by reducing protease activity (J. Biol. Chem. 264[3]:1860-69, 1989).
(Science 237 [4820]:1333-36, 1987) and to improve the healing of full-thickness ulcers (J. Clin.Invest. 87[2]:694-703,1991),http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedcmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16029674&dopt=AbstractPlus

Palmitoyl-pentapepde-3 stimulates collagen synthesis and stimulates fibroblast molecules which aid dermal matrix repair. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face, left-right randomized clinical study showed increased collagen production. Palmitoyl-pentapeptide-3 increases skin firmness over time. The surface area occupied by deep wrinkles was reduced by 68% and mean wrinkle density by 46% – after 60 days.
In a 2005 study in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Palmitoyl-pentapeptide-3 was found to significantly improve the appearance of fine lines +
Wrinkles, as well as overall moisturization levels.
(Science 237[4820]:1333-36, 1987) and to improve healing of full thickness ulcers (J. Clin.Invest. 87[2]:694-703,1991),


A combination of amino acids may help to relax muscle fibers leading to the possible reduction in the appearance of surface wrinkles. The hexapeptide proved to reduce the depth of the wrinkles in the face caused by the contraction of the muscles of facial expression, especially around the eyes and the forehead. It further prevents aging of the skin induced by repeated facial movements caused by excessive catecholamine release.
(References: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23146065, (J. Biol. Chem. 272[5]:2634-39, 1997)

FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Hydra Boost, Day & Night Cream, Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, Collagen Glow Face, Eye & Décollatage Mask, Dark Circle Erazor, Ultra Retinol


Additional References:
Mehta RC, Fitzpatrik RE. Endogenous growth
factors as cosmeceticals. Dermatologic Therapy 2007; Published online;
10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00149.x.Sundaram H,Mehta RC,Norine JA,Kirclik
L,Cook- Bolden FE et al.Topically applied physiologically balanced
growth factors:a new paradigm of skin rejuvenation. J.Drugs Dermatol.
2009 May 8 (5 Supply Skin Rejuvenation) :4-13.Michael H.Gold MD,Mitchel
P.Goldman MD,Julie Biron

Efficacy of Novel Skin Cream Containing Mixture of Human Growth Factors and Cytokines for Skin Rejuvenation.

Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 2007: 6 (2): 197-202. http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/2177e6.htm International

Journal of Cosmetic Science, Cosmeceutical Peptides, http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/23146065,
Biol. Chem. 272[5]:2634-39,1997)Romo T. and Pearson J.M. 2005. Wound
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"Macrophages Restrain Contraction of an In Vitro Wound Healing Model"
Wound Healing: Healing and Repair.(http://
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20, 2008. Nguyen,

D.T., Orgill D.P., Murphy G.F. (2009). Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous

Regeneration - (http://cs5937.userapi.com/u11728334/docs/ea74e26d38fa/)
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Barritault et al, Regenerating agents (RGTAs): a new therapeutic approach. Ann Pharm Fr.
2006 Mar; 64(2):135-44.
Van Neck et al, Heparan sulfate proteoglycan mimetics thrive tissue regeneration: an overview.
In Intech book under the working title "Tissue Regeneration",
ISBN - 978-953-307-876-2 - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9789533078762)
is scheduled for on line publication on Nov 26, 2011"
Cumming; McElwain, Upton (2010). "A mathematical model of wound healing and subsequent
scarring". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7: 19–34.
Gurtner; Werner, Barrandon, Longaker (2008). "Wound repair and regeneration". Nature Insight
Review 453:314–321.
Gurtner; Dauskardt, Wong, Bhatt, Wu, Vial, Padois, Korman, Longaker (2011). "Improving
Cutaneous ScarFormation by Controlling the Mechanical Environment". Annals of Surgery 254: 217–225.
Kuhl; Steinmann (2004). "Computational modeling of healing: an application of the material
force method". Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology 2: 187–203.
Table 3-1 in: Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson
(2007). Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
ISBN - 1-4160-2973-7 - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-4160-2973-7). 8th edition.
Advanced skin care research on Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
Shows that it is useful for: antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, promoting collagen production, skin
lightening and skin brightening, and for UV protection/sun damage repair

External links

Wound Healing Society (http://www.woundheal.org/)
European Tissue Repair Society (http://www.etrs.org/)
Wound Repair and Regeneration (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1524-475X/issues)
The official publication of the Wound Healing Society and the European Tissue Repair Society.
Journal of Burns and Wound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Central)/journals/211/)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair (http://www.fibrogenesis.com/),
An online open access journal about chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis.

EWMA Journal (http://ewma.org/english/ewma-journal/latest-issues.html),
Journal of the European Wound Management Association
DOI - Digital Object Identifier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier).
PMC - PubMed Central ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Central).
PMID - PubMed Indentifier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier#PubMed_identifier)
ISBN - International Standard Book Number (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number)

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